Triguna ( त्रिगुण )

Just as the doshas are the essential components of the body, the three gunas – SatwaRajas and Tamas – are the three essential components or energies of the mind.


Guna influence physical, mental and intellectual level of every individual.

Sattva is the state of thoughts in equanimity, serenity, objectivity — when a person is poised, mature, contemplative, detached from worldly involvement and excitement.

Rajas is the state of passionate, desirous and agitated thoughts — when a person bristles with frenzied actions leading to his involvement in the affairs of the world.

Tamas is the state of thoughts in inertia; a mood of lethargy, indolence, indifference. Indisposed to activity, in a condition of sloth and sleep and with no intellectual conviction to pursue, nor emotional feeling to manifest, a person steeped in tamas lives a dull, inactive life, with hardly any response to the world.

Triguna and Srishti utapatti

It has been proposed that Satva, Raja and Tama were present on primitive earth representing the physical properties prevalent to the primitive earth. In Sankhya Darshan, Acharya Kapil has described 24 principles that are involved in the Srishti utapatti, these are – Avyakta, Mahad, Ahankara, mind, 5 sense faculties, 5 motor faculties, 5 great elements and 5  tanmantras.

From the Ahankara consciousness get divided into 3 different qualities these are called as Maha gunas (Satva , Raja and Tama). By the combination of Satva and Rajas guna , 5 sensory organs (Gyanendriya) , 5 motor organs (Karmendriya) and Mind are developed. From Rajas and Tamas guna 5 great elements (Panchmahabhuta) and 5 Tanmantras are developed.

Triguna And Pancha Mahabhutas-

According to Acharya Sushruta, Mahabhutas are constituted by the Trigunas. Akasha is predominant with Sattva, Vayu with Rajas, Agni with Sattva–Rajas, Jala with Sattva–Tamas, and Prithvi with Tamas.